The Behaviour Design Toolkit
Behavioural psychology shows that:
95% of all our decisions are made unconsciously.
Deciding what to do, where to click and how to act.
Think of all the missed opportunities to create better products, services and business solutions.
Behaviour design decodes the 95%.
Behaviour Design is an innovative approach to problem-solving.
It starts with what makes us, us - our brains.
Driven by the latest insights from Behavioural Science, it brings the knowledge from academia to help problem solve. Drawing insights from a combination of psychology, behavioural economics and neuroscience.
Tailoring solutions to the way people think and the way people act.
Put simply, if we know how the brain works, we know how to better design for it.
We start with B = MAT.
Created by leading behaviour researcher, BJ Fogg, it explains that behaviour is the result of three components - motivation, ability and trigger.
Each must be present at the same time for a person to carry out a behaviour.
It underpins our unique process, which we call motivation-directed behaviour design.
It sounds like a mouthful, but it ensures a person is already motivated to act when our well-designed solutions are used.
Motivation is difficult to change, being unique and personal to each and every person. We assess people’s motivation and concentrate our time and ideation on areas with high and low motivation. Selecting the best behavioural design type from the four main design types; persuasive, habit, preventative and intervention design.
1. Determine the project outcome
Turning business objectives into behavioural objectives
When designing behaviour, it is important to transition from a business objective to a behavioural objective, we call these human factor KPIs.
They provide measurable and relatable measures of people’s behaviour that put the human back into the traditional measure of business success.
2. Behaviour chain
Sequencing the unwanted behaviour into a behaviour chain
Behaviour is a story. By drawing out the entire behaviour chain we are able to see what happens before, during and after the point of unwanted behaviour.
3. Behavioural persona
Emotion mapping to establish a person’s intrinsic motivation
Behavioural personas give a complete picture of who is carrying out the behaviour. They cover a person’s goals, emotions, needs, frustrations and personality. We use these to infer a person's intrinsic motivation through assessing their expressed emotions and their reasoning behind a behaviour. How a person categorises their performance, satisfaction, acceptance, the likelihood of future use and effective responses gives insight into their intrinsic motivation.
4. Context analysis
Understanding the context of a person's behaviour
We research when and where a person does a behaviour. We can use the context to build a profile of a person's extrinsic motivation. By observing and asking people about their behaviour we can establish what their extrinsic motivations are. We can assess it at three points in their behaviour: through a preaction evaluation, observing what they are doing during the behaviour, and through a post action evaluation.
5. Motivation profiling
Breaking down behaviour into motivation
By assessing and understanding where people are most and least motivated we can design solutions that optimise for their ability and have the the best trigger for behaviour change. We take the insights from the previous steps and map a person's motivation across the behaviour chain.
6. Determine areas for behaviour change
Choosing the most effective behaviour design
Based on a person’s motivation, we choose the best behavioural approach. The 4 main types of behaviour design are: Intervention design, Preventative design, Habit design, Persuasive design.
7. Ideate - Habit design
Creating habits from wanted behaviours
We can design habits by assessing people’s behaviour patterns and looking at ways to automate them, minimise any barriers and adding an investment.
7. Ideate - Persuasive design
Nudging people to improve their behaviour
Persuasive design uses a wide range of techniques to encourage wanted behaviours, from social proof, social learning, extrinsic rewards, contrast principle, scarcity - the list goes on. We create and maintain feedback loops that encourage people's behaviour.
7. Ideate - Preventative design
Hindering people's unwanted behaviour
Behaviour can be changed by designing trigger and complexity barriers. Trigger barriers reduce and remove the triggers that lead to a certain behaviour. Complexity barriers aim to make a behaviour harder to do by reducing a person’s ability to carry out a behaviour.
7. Ideate - Intervention design
Interrupt a person's bad behaviour
Sometimes a more direct approach is needed to disrupt a person's chain of behaviour. Especially when they are highly motivated to do an unwanted behaviour.
8. Evaluate idea
Ensuring the proposed design is effective and ethical
It is important to step back from your idea and evaluate it. We evaluate against a checklist, including: ethics, measurability, effectiveness, resource constraints, people’s attention and people’s ability to carry out the behaviour.
9. New behaviour chain
Sequencing the new behaviour chain
We sequence the new behaviour, noting where solutions are introduced. It gives a basis from which we can validate whether the behaviour design has been successful.
Testing the behaviour design
We prototype and test whether the solution has changed people's behaviour and met the human factor KPI introduced in step 1. Once the idea is validated, we look at how to scale, implement and apply the design.
Behaviour science is giving established companies, startups and public sectors a competitive edge. Using the knowledge of how the brain works and how we behave.
In the last couple of years, there has been an explosion of behavioural insights at a governmental level and in the FTSE 500. Companies like Google, Amazon, Bank of America and Walmart recognising its vast potential. Seeing great returns in profits and customer happiness.
Helpful banking for mental health
Monzo, makes banking ‘as simple as posting on Facebook or replying to an email’. They help people track what they are spending, help with budgeting and provide updates and guidance with any potential financial struggles that may arise. They also use ‘positive friction’. Help people with mental health issues make better purchase patterns. ie. helping people with Bipolar double check purchases the night after a possible mania episode.
Protect your skin against sun damage
88% of people know sun exposure damages the skin, especially when people get sunburn. However, only 27% of people wear facial sun protection. To bridge the gap between people’s knowledge that they should protect their skin, and actually do it L’Oréal created My UV Patch. It monitors UV levels and educated people on how best to take care of their skin. Personalising the information to the particular individual, from location to age, skin colour and weather data.
When using My UV Patch:
- 31% tried to stay in the shade more,
- 37% used more facial sunscreen,
- 63% experienced less sunburn.
Increased charitable giving
Many crowdsourcing and charity websites display how much has been raised so far, in the context as a percentage of the goal. This positively impacts how much is raised, and how quickly in relation to the displayed percentage. At 10% of the goal, the average donation is $15. Whereas at 67%, the average donation is $40.
Enjoy nights out with moderation
Drinking water on a night out helps people to moderate their drinking and avoid the negative effects of getting carried away. It's often difficult for two reasons. It is expensive to buy bottled water in clubs and amongst some groups, there is a social stigma around switching from beer to water. Heineken made it cool to drink water, helping people enjoy their beers and night outs more by launching This One Is On Us. Giving customers a complimentary cup of tap water, which sits around the neck of each beer bottle.
We love to introduce people to behaviour design. Our half-hour lunchtime talks fit easily into busy schedules but deliver big impact.
We provide hand on teaching, working through a real business problem and teaching the behaviour kit process along the way.
We are an experienced team that can work through the challenge and give the best behavioural foundation to your business.